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Francis D. K. Ching. Architecture. Form, Space, & Order. — Fourth Edition. — New Jersey, 2015

Architecture. Form, Space, & Order / Francis D. K. Ching. — Fourth Edition. — New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015  Architecture. Form, Space, & Order / Francis D. K. Ching. — Fourth Edition. — New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015
 
 

Architecture. Form, Space, & Order / Francis D. K. Ching. — Fourth Edition. — New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015. — XIV, 447 p., ill. — ISBN 978-1-118-74508-3 (paperback)

 
 

PREFACE

 
The original edition of this study introduced the student of architecture to form and space and the principles that guide their ordering in the built environment. Form and space are the critical means of architecture comprising a design vocabulary that is both elemental and timeless. The second edition continued to be a comprehensive primer on the ways form and space are interrelated and organized in the shaping of our environment, and was refined by editing the text and incorporating diagrams for greater clarity, adding selected examples of architectural works, expanding the sections on openings, stairways, and scale, and finally, by including a glossary and an index to designers. The third edition persisted in illustrating the ways the fundamental elements and principles of architectural design manifest themselves over the course of human history but added an electronic component to introduce the aspects of time and movement to the exposition of elements and principles.
 
In this fourth edition, major changes consist of the addition of more than two dozen contemporary examples, selected to illustrate the new forms that go beyond the timeless elements of basic statics—the columns, beams, and load-bearing walls of stable constructions that are fixed in time and space. Five more modules have also been added to the electronic component to animate certain design decisions regarding scale and proportion, the type of visual, often subtle judgements that designers face in the development of a project.
 
The historical models in this book span time and cross cultural boundaries. While the juxtaposition of styles may appear to be abrupt at times, the diverse range of examples is deliberate. The collage is intended to persuade the reader to look for likenesses among seemingly unlike constructions and bring into sharper focus the critical distinctions that reflect the time and place of their making. Readers are encouraged to take note of additional examples encountered or recalled within the context of their individual experiences. As the design elements and principles become more familiar, new connections, relationships, and levels of meaning may be established.
 
The illustrated examples are neither exhaustive nor necessarily the prototypes for the concepts and principles discussed. Their selection merely serves to illuminate and clarify the formal and spatial ideas being explored. These seminal ideas transcend their historical context and encourage speculation: How might they be analyzed, perceived, and experienced? How might they be transformed into coherent, useful, and meaningful structures of space and enclosure? How might they be reapplied to a range of architectural problems? This manner of presentation attempts to promote a more evocative understanding of the architecture one experiences, the architecture one encounters in literature, and the architecture one imagines while designing.
 

 

CONTENTS

 
Preface vii
Acknowledgments viii
Introduction ix
 
1 Primary Elements
Primary Elements 2
Point 4
Point Elements 5
Two Points 6
Line 8
Linear Elements 10
Linear Elements Defining Planes 15
From Line to Plane 14
Plane 18
Planar Elements 20
Volume 28
Volumetric Elements 30
 
2 Form
Form 34
Properties of Form 35
Shape 36
Primary Shapes 38
Circle 39
Triangle 40
Square 41
Surfaces 42
Curved Surfaces 43
Primary Solids 46
Regular & Irregular Forms 50
Transformation of Form 54
Dimensional Transformation 56
Subtractive Form 58
Subtractive & Additive Forms 61
Additive Form 62
Centralized Form 64
Linear Form 66
Radial Form 70
Clustered Form 72
Grid Form 76
Formal Collisions of Geometry 78
Circle & Square 80
Rotated Grid 82
Articulation of Form 84
Edges & Corners 86
Corners 87
Surface Articulation 92
 
3 Form & Space
Form & Space 100
Form & Space: Unity of Opposites 102
Form Defining Space 110
Horizontal Elements Defining Space 111
Base Plane 112
Elevated Base Plane 114
Depressed Base Plane 120
Overhead Plane 126
Vertical Elements Defining Space 134
Vertical Linear Elements 136
Single Vertical Plane 144
L-Shaped Configuration of Planes 148
L-Shaped Planes 149
Parallel Vertical Planes 154
Parallel Planes 155
U-Shaped Planes 160
Four Planes: Closure 166
Four Planes: Enlosure 170
Openings in Space-Defining Elements 174
Openings within Planes 176
Openings at Corners 178
Openings between Planes 180
Qualities of Architectural Space 182
Degree of Enclosure 184
Light 186
View 190
 
4 Organization
Organization of Form & Space 196
Spatial Relationships 197
Space within a Space 198
Interlocking Spaces 200
Adjacent Spaces 202
Spaces Linked by a Common Space 204
Spatial Organizations 206
Centralized Organizations 208
Linear Organizations 218
Radial Organizations 228
Clustered Organizations 234
Grid Organizations 242
 
5 Circulation
Circulation: Movement through Space 252
Circulation Elements 253
Approach 254
Entrance 262
Configuration of the Path 276
Path-Space Relationships 290
Form of the Circulation Space 294
 
6 Proportion & Scale
Proportion & Scale 306
Material Proportions 307
Structural Proportions 308
Manufactured Proportions 310
Proportioning Systems 311
Golden Section 314
Regulating Lines 318
Classical Orders 320
Renaissance Theories 326
Modulor 330
Ken 334
Anthropometry 338
Scale 341
Visual Scale 342
Human Scale 344
A Scalar Comparison 346
 
7 Principles
Ordering Principles 350
Axis 352
Symmetry 360
Hierarchy 370
Datum 380
Rhythm 396
Repetition 397
Transformation 418
 
Conclusion 422
 
A Selected Bibliography 425
Glossary 427
Index of Buildings 435
Index of Designers 441
Index of Subject Matter 443
 

 

Sample pages

Architecture. Form, Space, & Order / Francis D. K. Ching. — Fourth Edition. — New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015  Architecture. Form, Space, & Order / Francis D. K. Ching. — Fourth Edition. — New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015
 
Architecture. Form, Space, & Order / Francis D. K. Ching. — Fourth Edition. — New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015  Architecture. Form, Space, & Order / Francis D. K. Ching. — Fourth Edition. — New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015
 

 

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